Basic Motor Theory (9)

DC General Construction
A typical DC generator or motor usually consists of: An armature core, an air gap, poles, and a yoke which form the magnetic circuit; an armature winding, a field winding, brushes and a commutator which form the electric circuit; and a frame, end bells, bearings, brush supports and a shaft which provide the mechanical support. See figure 8.


Figure 8. Four Pole DC Motor

Armature Core or Stack
The armature stack is made up thin magnetic steel laminations stamped from sheet steel with a blanking die. Slots are punched in the lamination with a slot die. Sometimes these two operations are done as one. The laminations are welded, riveted, bolted or bonded together.
Armature Winding
The armature winding is the winding, which fits in the armature slots and is eventually connected to the commutator. It either generates or receives the voltage depending on whether the unit is a generator or motor. The armature winding usually consists of copper wire, either round or rectangular and is insulated from the armature stack.
Field Poles
The pole cores can be made from solid steel castings or from laminations. At the air gap, the pole usually fans out into what is known as a pole head or pole shoe. This is done to reduce the reluctance of the air gap. Normally the field coils are formed and placed on the pole cores and then the whole assembly is mounted to the yoke.
Field Coils
The field coils are those windings, which are located on the poles and set up the magnetic fields in the machine. They also usually consist of copper wire are insulated from the poles. The field coils may be either shunt windings (in parallel with the armature winding) or series windings (in series with the armature winding) or a combination of both.
Yoke
The yoke is a circular steel ring, which supports the field, poles mechanically and provides the necessary magnetic path between the pole. The yoke can be solid or laminated. In many DC machines, the yoke also serves as the frame.
Commutator
The commutator is the mechanical rectifier, which changes the AC voltage of the rotating conductors to DC voltage. It consists of a number of segments normally equal to the number of slots. The segments or commutator bars are made of silver bearing copper and are separated from each other by mica insulation.
Brushes and Brush Holders
Brushes conduct the current from the commutator to the external circuit. There are many types of brushes. A brush holder is usually a metal box that is rectangular in shape. The brush holder has a spring that holds the brush in contact with the commutator. Each brush usually has a flexible copper shunt or pigtail, which extends to the lead wires. Often, the entire brush assembly is insulated from the frame and is made movable as a unit about the commutator to allow for adjustment.
Interpoles
Interpoles are similar to the main field poles and located on the yoke between the main field poles. They have windings in series with the armature winding. Interpoles have the function of reducing the armature reaction effect in the commutating zone. They eliminate the need to shift the brush assembly.
Frame, End Bells, Shaft, and Bearings
The frame and end bells are usually steel, aluminum or magnesium castings used to enclose and support the basic machine parts. The armature is mounted on a steel shaft, which is supported between two bearings. The bearings are either sleeve, ball or roller type. They are normally lubricated by grease or oil.
Back End, Front End
The load end of the motor is the Back End. The opposite load end, most often the commutator end, is the Front End of the motor.

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