Ingress Protection (IP) rating

International standard IEC 60529 classifies the level of protection that electrical appliances provide against the intrusion of solid objects or dust, accidental contact, and water. The resulting ingress protection rating is identified by a code that consists of the letters IP followed by two digits and an optional letter. The digits (‘characteristic numerals’) indicate conformity with the conditions summarized in the tables below. Where there is no protection rating with regard to one of the criteria, the digit is replaced with the letter X.

For example, an electrical socket rated IP22 is protected against insertion of fingers and will not be damaged or become unsafe when exposed to vertically or nearly vertically dripping water. IP22 or IP2X are typical minimum requirements for the design of electrical accessories for in-door use.
One source reports that the Australian national standard AS 1939 adds to the international standard a third optional digit, which indicates protection against mechanical impact damage. It ranges from 0 for no protection to 9 for protection against 20 joule impacts (equivalent to 5 kg dropped from 40 cm).

First digit
The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects.

Second digit
Protection of the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful ingress of water.


Additional letters
The standard defines additional letters that can be appended to classify only the level of protection against access to hazardous parts by persons:

Further letters can be appended to provide additional information related to the protection of the device:

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