## Power Factor (3) – Finish

Some strategies for correcting your power factor are:

• Minimize operation of idling or lightly loaded motors.
• Avoid operation of equipment above its rated voltage.
• Replace standard motors as they burn out with energy-efficient motors.
Even with energy-efficient motors, however, the power factor is significantly affected by variations in load. A motor must be operated near its rated capacity to realize the benefits of a high power factor design.
• Install capacitors in your AC circuit to decrease the magnitude of reactive power.

As shown in the diagram at above, reactive power (measured in kVARs) caused by inductance always acts at a 90° angle to real power. Capacitors store kVARs and release energy opposing the reactive energy caused by the inductor. This implies that inductance and capacitance react 180° to each other. The presence of both in the same circuit results in the continuous alternating transfer of energy between the capacitor and the inductor, thereby reducing the current flow from the generator to the circuit. When the circuit is balanced, all the energy released by the inductor is absorbed by the capacitor.
In the diagram below, the power triangle shows an initial 0.70 power factor for a 100-kW (real power) inductive load. The reactive power required by the load is 100 kW. By installing a 67-kW capacitor, the apparent power is reduced from 142 to 105 kVA, resulting in a 26% reduction in current. Power factor is improved to 0.95. In the “horse and railcar” analogy, this is equivalent to decreasing the angle the horse is pulling on the railcar by leading the horse closer to the center of the railroad track. Because the side pull is minimized, less total effort is required from the horse to do the same amount of work.
Capacitor suppliers and engineering firms can provide the assistance you may need to determine the optimum power correction factor and to correctly locate and install capacitors in your electrical distribution system.

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Source : Fact Sheet of Department of Energy USA