AC Induction Motor Design (3)

5. Torque

By varying the resistance within the rotor bars of a squirrel cage rotor, you can vary the amount of torque developed. By increasing rotor resistance, torque and slip are increased. Decreasing rotor resistance decreases torque and slip.

Motor horsepower is a relation of motor output speed and torque (expressed in lb-ft):

HP = (RPM * Torque) / 5250 — eq. 5
The operating torques of an electric motor are defined as (Ref. NEMA MG 1-1993, Part 1, p.12):
  • Full Load Torque: The full load torque of a motor is the torque necessary to produce its rated horsepower at full-load speed. In pounds at a foot radius, it is equal to the hp times 5250 divided by the full-load speed.
  • Locked Rotor Torque: The locked-rotor torque of a motor is the minimum torque which will develop at rest for all angular positions of the rotor, with rated voltage applied at rated frequency.
  • Pull-Up Torque: The pull-up torque of an alternating current motor is the minimum torque developed by the motor during the period of acceleration from rest to the speed at which breakdown torque occurs. For motors which do not have a definite breakdown torque, the pull-up torque is the minimum torque developed up to rated speed.
  • Breakdown Torque: The breakdown torque of a motor is the maximum torque which it will develop with rated voltage applied at rated frequency, without an abrupt drop in speed.

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